have been
The Red List of China’s Vertebrates was authored by Jiang Z.G., J. Jianping, W. Yuezhao et al. and published in Biodiversity Science in 2016.

As a passionate bird photographer, I can confidently say that Hong Kong is an absolute paradise for birdwatchers. Despite its small size, this bustling metropolis is home to a staggering 570 bird species, which represents a third of all the species recorded in China. It’s truly remarkable!

The diversity of bird species in Hong Kong is thanks to our location on the southern coast of China, which boasts a sub-tropical monsoon climate. This climate provides the perfect conditions for a variety of natural habitats, including wetlands, woodlands, shrublands, and coastal areas, to thrive.

One of the most exciting things about Hong Kong is that it’s a stopover point for many migrating birds along the East-Asian Australasian Flyway. As such, we get to see a whole range of bird species passing through as they make their way south or north. Others choose to spend the winters here, making it a year-round birdwatching destination.

What’s more, Hong Kong is an ideal location for bird watching as it offers a range of sites where you can observe the varying forms and habits of birds at different times of the year. It’s amazing how much you can discover about a bird species simply by observing its behavior in different environments!

So whether you’re a seasoned birdwatcher or a curious beginner, I highly recommend a trip to Hong Kong to witness its incredible bird diversity. I guarantee that you won’t be disappointed!

The given text, “Black-faced Spoonbill,” cannot be paraphrased as it is simply the name of a bird species. However, I can provide additional information about this bird. The Black-faced Spoonbill is a critically endangered bird species that is found in Asia, particularly in countries such as South Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. As its name suggests, this bird has a distinctive black face and a spoon-shaped bill that it uses to forage for food in shallow waters. It is a beautiful bird that is highly valued by birdwatchers and conservationists alike, as efforts are being made to protect and conserve this species in the wild.

Composition of the Birds in Hong Kong

If you’re a bird enthusiast like me and you’re planning a trip to Hong Kong, then you’ll definitely want to download the Checklist of Birds of Hong Kong. This comprehensive guide is a must-have for anyone looking to explore the incredible bird diversity that this region has to offer.

With over 570 bird species recorded in Hong Kong, this checklist is an invaluable tool that will help you identify the different birds you come across during your birdwatching adventures. It provides information on the common and rare species found in the region, as well as their scientific names, habitats, and migration patterns.

One of the best things about this checklist is that it’s available for free download online. So, whether you’re a local resident or a visitor to the region, you can easily access it and start planning your birdwatching excursions.

Personally, I’ve found this checklist to be incredibly helpful during my own birdwatching trips in Hong Kong. It’s allowed me to keep track of the species I’ve seen and also discover new and exciting bird species that I might have otherwise missed.

So, if you’re planning a trip to Hong Kong and want to make the most out of your birdwatching experience, be sure to download the Checklist of Birds of Hong Kong. Trust me, you won’t regret it!

Hong Kong is home to an impressive number of bird species, which can be overwhelming for bird enthusiasts. To facilitate the study of avian habits, we classify birds based on specific criteria. One method is to group bird species according to their primary habitats, such as forest birds that are active mainly in forests, wetland birds that are seen mainly in wetlands, and others. Additionally, birds can be classified based on their migratory habits, including resident species, migrating species, passage migrants, and occasional visitors.

Overall, birds in Hong Kong are broadly classified according to these criteria, making it easier for birdwatchers to identify and understand the different species they encounter in the region. This classification system provides valuable insights into the behavior and characteristics of different bird species, which in turn contributes to our understanding of the complex ecosystems they inhabit.

The given text “1. Resident Species” cannot be further paraphrased as it is a heading or title. However, I can provide additional information about resident species. Resident species are birds that remain in a particular region or habitat throughout the year and do not migrate. In Hong Kong, there are several bird species that are classified as resident species, such as the Red-whiskered Bulbul, the Crested Myna, and the Chinese Pond Heron. These birds have adapted to the local climate and environment, and can be found in Hong Kong’s various habitats, including forests, wetlands, and coastal areas. As a result, they are commonly seen by birdwatchers and are an important part of Hong Kong’s diverse bird population.

Resident species in Hong Kong are birds that typically reside and reproduce in the region throughout their lifespan. These species account for around one-fifth of the total bird population in Hong Kong. Some of the most common resident bird species that can be found in urban areas of Hong Kong include the Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Oriental Magpie-Robin, Fork-tailed Sunbird, Black-crowned Night Heron, and Red-whiskered Bulbul. Meanwhile, in rural areas and wetlands, it’s common to see the White-throated Kingfisher and Little Egret.

For birdwatchers looking to explore Hong Kong’s woodlands, the Japanese Tit and Swinhoe’s White-eye are two of the most frequently sighted resident species in all seasons. These birds have adapted to their natural habitats and can be easily spotted by their unique physical features and behavioral patterns.

Overall, resident species are an essential part of Hong Kong’s bird population and offer an exciting opportunity for bird enthusiasts to observe and learn about the local birdlife.

The following bird species are considered residents of Hong Kong, and they are known to nest and breed in the region: Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Oriental Magpie-Robin, Fork-tailed Sunbird, Red-whiskered Bulbul, and Little Egret. These birds have adapted to the local climate and habitat conditions, making them well-suited to the Hong Kong environment. As such, they can be frequently observed by birdwatchers throughout the year.

Hong Kong’s location along the East-Asian Australasian Flyway makes it an essential stopover point for migrating birds. Every year, thousands of birds from different parts of the world pass through Hong Kong as they migrate to their breeding or wintering grounds. These birds are classified into two categories: migrating birds and passage migrants.

Migrating birds are species that regularly travel from their breeding grounds in the northern hemisphere to their wintering grounds in the south. They spend a relatively short period in Hong Kong as they pass through on their long journey. Some of the most commonly observed migrating birds in Hong Kong include the Arctic Warbler, the Eastern Crowned Warbler, and the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher.

Passage migrants, on the other hand, are species that travel through Hong Kong during their bi-annual migrations between their breeding grounds and wintering grounds. These birds spend more time in Hong Kong than migrating birds, usually for a few weeks to a few months. Some of the most frequently sighted passage migrants in Hong Kong include the Black-winged Stilt, the Red-necked Stint, and the Grey Wagtail.

Observing these migrating and passage migrant birds is a unique and exciting experience for birdwatchers. With the right timing and location, bird enthusiasts can witness an array of fascinating bird species during their migration journey. Hong Kong’s diverse habitats, including wetlands, woodlands, shrublands, and coastal areas, offer the perfect setting for observing a wide range of migrating and passage migrant birds.

Birds exhibit a fascinating behaviour of seasonal migration, which is driven by environmental and climatic changes. In regions with frigid and temperate climates, birds often struggle with unstable food supply due to the significant seasonal changes. To avoid this problem, they fly south to the sub-tropics or tropics before the onset of winter when food is scarce. In the following spring, when the weather gets warmer, they return north to breed. By migrating, they can ensure they have a steady supply of food and warmth throughout the year.

The migrating route taken by birds varies according to their species. Birds of the same species typically form migrating groups by instinct. Waterfowl, in particular, have the longest flying route. This behaviour is a remarkable example of how birds adapt to their environment to ensure their survival. Birdwatchers in various parts of the world can witness the spectacle of these migratory birds as they travel through different habitats. It is truly a unique and awe-inspiring experience to observe these remarkable creatures as they undertake their arduous journey.

For migrating birds that undertake journeys spanning thousands of kilometres each year, stopover sites play a critical role in their survival. These stopover sites are typically located along the flyway, between the birds’ breeding and wintering grounds, and offer essential feeding grounds where the birds can rest and build up their body reserves of fat and energy.

One such crucial stopover site for migrating waders is the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site. This site, located in Hong Kong, provides a vital resting and feeding ground for a variety of migratory bird species as they travel through the East-Asian Australasian Flyway. The site is a haven for a wide range of wader species, including the globally endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, which relies on the Mai Po wetlands for its survival during the migration period.

The Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site is a critical habitat for these migratory birds, as it provides a diverse range of wetland habitats that support a rich variety of invertebrates, crustaceans and fish, which are important food sources for the wading birds. The site is also carefully managed to ensure the protection and conservation of its unique biodiversity. Birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts can visit the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site to witness the incredible spectacle of these migratory birds as they rest and feed before continuing their long journey.

As a travelling photographer with a keen interest in birdwatching, I have been fortunate enough to witness some incredible species in their natural habitats. Among the most striking of these birds are the Amur Falcon and Daurian Restart.

The Amur Falcon, also known as the Eastern Red-footed Falcon, is a small bird of prey that breeds in northeast Asia and migrates to southern Africa. During its migration, the Amur Falcon is known to form large flocks that can number in the tens of thousands. It is a stunning bird with a unique plumage, including a blue-grey head, red legs and feet, and a rufous-chestnut breast. I have been lucky enough to observe this bird during my travels and it is truly a sight to behold.

The Daurian Restart, also known as the Red-throated Thrush, is another bird that has captured my attention. It is a medium-sized bird that breeds in northeast Asia and migrates to southeast Asia. The Daurian Restart has a distinctive appearance, with a red throat and chestnut-colored back. I have had the privilege of observing this bird during its migratory stopovers in Hong Kong, where it is known to feed on berries and insects.

Both the Amur Falcon and Daurian Restart are remarkable birds that highlight the beauty and diversity of avian species found in Asia. As a photographer and bird enthusiast, I am constantly in awe of these magnificent creatures and the journeys they undertake each year.

Summer visitors are a group of birds that arrive in Hong Kong during the summer months to breed and raise their young. These birds come from various parts of the world, such as Siberia, Mongolia, and northeast China. Many summer visitors are waders and waterfowl that inhabit Hong Kong’s wetlands during the breeding season, while others prefer woodlands or open country. Common summer visitors to Hong Kong include the Black-crowned Night Heron, Chinese Pond Heron, and Common Kingfisher.

Summer visitors make up only a minor fraction of the bird species in Hong Kong. These birds usually breed in Hong Kong during summer and then migrate southwards during winter. The Bridled Tern, Roseate Tern, and Black-naped Tern can be observed breeding on some of the remote islands in the eastern waters of Hong Kong, while in the woodland areas, the Hainan Blue Flycatcher and Chestnut-winged Cuckoo are frequently spotted during the summer months. Some waterfowl species also migrate to Hong Kong to breed during summer, such as the Yellow Bittern which nests here between May and August.

truly remarkable

Reworded: “The Bridled Tern is a bird species found in the eastern waters of Hong Kong, which breeds on some remote islands during the summer season.”

Hong Kong serves as a vital stopover site for many passage migrant birds. These birds do not breed or winter in Hong Kong, but rather stop for a short period to rest and feed on their long migratory journeys. Some of the passage migrants that can be seen in Hong Kong include the Siberian Rubythroat, Blue-and-white Flycatcher, Asian Brown Flycatcher, Grey-streaked Flycatcher, and the Arctic Warbler. These birds typically pass through Hong Kong during the spring and autumn migration periods.

One of the popular places for birdwatchers to observe passage migrants is the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society’s bird ringing station located in the Hong Kong Wetland Park. The station conducts bird ringing and monitoring activities to study the migratory patterns and behavior of birds passing through Hong Kong. The information gathered from these activities is essential for the conservation and protection of these bird species and their habitats.

It’s important to note that passage migrants face many threats during their long migratory journeys, including habitat loss, climate change, and hunting. As such, it’s crucial to raise awareness about the importance of protecting these birds and their habitats, not just in Hong Kong but throughout their migratory range. By taking action to protect these birds, we can ensure that they will continue to grace our skies for generations to come.

Hong Kong lies at the midpoint of the East-Asian Australasian Flyway, and it serves as a temporary home to many passage migrants each year. These birds travel through Hong Kong during their spring and autumn migration, staying for a brief period before continuing their long journey south or north. The migratory species that pass through Hong Kong include raptors, waders, and passerines, such as the Chinese Sparrowhawk, Spoon-billed Sandpiper, and Brown Shrike.

The Brown Shrike (Lanius cristatus) is a small passerine bird that belongs to the shrike family. It is a migratory bird that breeds in northern China, Korea, Japan, and eastern Russia and winters in Southeast Asia, including Hong Kong.

The Brown Shrike is a medium-sized bird with a distinctive brown and white plumage. It has a dark mask around its eyes and a thin black bill. Its wings are short and pointed, and its tail is relatively long with white tips. The female Brown Shrike is slightly duller in color than the male, with a brownish-gray head and back.

In Hong Kong, the Brown Shrike is a passage migrant, passing through during the spring and autumn migration seasons. It can be seen in a variety of habitats, including woodland, scrub, and farmland. During migration, the Brown Shrike feeds on insects, small mammals, and occasionally small birds.

The Brown Shrike is known for its hunting behavior, which involves perching on a high vantage point, such as a tree or wire, and scanning for prey. Once it spots its prey, it swoops down to catch it in its talons and returns to its perch to consume it.

Overall, the Brown Shrike is a fascinating bird to observe during its brief stay in Hong Kong. Its distinctive appearance and hunting behavior make it a favorite among birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts alike.

Hong Kong is a place of surprises and it is not just the breathtaking skyline and stunning harbour that makes it so. The region is also a popular destination for many occasional visitors from various parts of the world. These occasional visitors, also known as vagrants, are birds that have gone off course during their migratory journeys and ended up in Hong Kong.

These visitors are not a common sight, and bird watchers need to be alert and on the lookout for them. Some of the species that have been recorded in Hong Kong include the White-throated Needletail, Eastern Yellow Wagtail, and Red-throated Pipit. These birds are a treat to spot and photograph, but bird watchers need to be quick as they do not usually stay for long periods.

Hong Kong’s location makes it a perfect stopover site for birds traveling along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. It is a vital place for birds to rest and feed before continuing their journey. The presence of occasional visitors is a reminder of the immense distances that birds can travel and the fragility of their migratory journey.

Bird watchers need to remain vigilant when observing these occasional visitors, as they can sometimes be mistaken for similar-looking resident or migrating species. However, recording these sightings can provide valuable data on the distribution and behavior of these birds.

In conclusion, Hong Kong is a fascinating place for bird watchers, with a diverse range of species from residents to occasional visitors. The thrill of spotting these visitors provides a glimpse into the incredible journeys that birds undertake and the importance of their habitats.

There are certain bird species that are only occasionally seen in Hong Kong because they are typically found in regions that border Hong Kong. These birds include the Short-eared Owl, Common Shelduck, and Slaty-backed Forktail. Spotting these rare visitors in Hong Kong requires some luck, as they are not commonly seen in the area.

Birdwatching is a popular activity for nature lovers around the world. Hong Kong, with its unique geographic location, is a crucial stopover point for many migratory bird species along the East-Asian Australasian Flyway. However, besides the regular resident and migratory birds, Hong Kong also attracts some occasional visitors and vagrants.

Occasional visitors are species whose natural range borders Hong Kong. Although they are not regular inhabitants, they may be spotted occasionally. These include the Short-eared Owl, Common Shelduck, and Slaty-backed Forktail. They require some luck and patience to spot as they are not always present.

On the other hand, vagrants are birds that stray far from their usual flight path or destination during migration. These birds get lost due to various reasons such as unfavorable weather conditions. The rare sightings of vagrants have always been an exciting experience for bird watchers. For instance, two Siberian Cranes appeared in Luk Keng and Mai Po Nature Reserve in 2016, the Glossy Ibis was found in Long Valley in 2019, and Lapland Longspur was found in Long Valley in 2021. These sightings sparked interest and excitement among bird enthusiasts as these vagrants are rare to encounter.

In conclusion, occasional visitors and vagrants add to the diversity of bird species in Hong Kong, making it a fascinating destination for birdwatchers. Anyone with an interest in birdwatching should consider visiting Hong Kong to witness these amazing birds in their natural habitat.

Birds have always been a source of fascination and wonder for humans, with their diverse range of colors, shapes, and behaviors. In Hong Kong, there are various types of birds that can be observed, from resident species to occasional visitors. Among these occasional visitors are the Common Shelduck, Siberian Crane, Glossy Ibis, and Lapland Longspur, each of which is unique in its own way.

The Common Shelduck is a large waterfowl species with striking markings. They are usually found in large flocks and can be seen in many parts of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. However, due to their natural range marginally touching Hong Kong, they are considered occasional visitors. Spotting one of these birds in Hong Kong can be challenging, but the reward is well worth the effort.

The Siberian Crane is a migratory bird that breeds in northern Russia and winters in central and eastern China. In 2016, two Siberian Cranes made an unexpected appearance in Hong Kong, one at Luk Keng and the other at Mai Po Nature Reserve, which caused great excitement among bird watchers. With only a few hundred left in the wild, the sighting of this rare bird in Hong Kong was a once-in-a-lifetime experience for many.

The Glossy Ibis is a wading bird with beautiful iridescent plumage. They are native to the wetlands of southern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but sometimes they stray far from their usual range during migration. In 2019, a Glossy Ibis was spotted in Long Valley, Hong Kong, which was a rare occurrence and attracted bird watchers from all over the region.

The Lapland Longspur is a small bird that breeds in the Arctic tundra and winters in the United States and Eurasia. They are occasionally seen in Hong Kong during migration, but sightings are infrequent. In 2021, a Lapland Longspur was found in Long Valley, which caused quite a stir among bird enthusiasts.

In conclusion, occasional visitors like the Common Shelduck, Siberian Crane, Glossy Ibis, and Lapland Longspur add to the diversity of birdlife in Hong Kong. While their sightings may be rare, they are a reminder of the rich natural heritage of the region and the need to protect it.

Key Species of Conservation Concern

Hong Kong is home to a variety of bird species, some of which are listed as threatened on the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Red List of China’s Vertebrates. Out of the almost 40 species listed as threatened, some can be found in Mai Po and Deep Bay. These include the Greater Spotted Eagle, Eastern Imperial Eagle, Saunders’s Gull, Asian Dowitcher, Far Eastern Curlew, and Black-faced Spoonbill. These birds either stop over or winter in Hong Kong every year, making these areas crucial for their survival.

Aside from threatened species, Hong Kong also sees uncommon passage migrants and resident birds. The Japanese Paradise Flycatcher is an example of an uncommon passage migrant, while the Chinese Grassbird is a resident species. Although these species are not considered threatened, they still play an important role in the ecosystem and add to the biodiversity of the region.

It is crucial to protect these species and their habitats to ensure their survival. Mai Po and Deep Bay have been designated as Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, recognizing their importance for migratory waterbirds. Conservation efforts such as habitat restoration, bird banding, and public education are being implemented to protect these birds and their habitats.

Hong Kong is home to several bird species, some of which have stable populations. However, despite this, some species are listed as near threatened or vulnerable in the Red List of China’s Vertebrates due to habitat loss or continuing exploitation in mainland China. Among these species are the Crested Goshawk, Bonelli’s Eagle, and Crested Serpent Eagle.

The Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) is a medium-sized bird of prey that can be found throughout much of Asia, including Hong Kong. While the species has a stable population in Hong Kong, it is listed as near threatened in the Red List of China’s Vertebrates. This is due to habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as hunting and capture for the pet trade in mainland China.

Similarly, the Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata) is a large bird of prey that is found in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia. The species is listed as near threatened in the Red List of China’s Vertebrates due to habitat loss and hunting in mainland China.

The Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) is another bird of prey that is found in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia. While the species has a stable population in Hong Kong, it is listed as vulnerable in the Red List of China’s Vertebrates. This is due to habitat loss, hunting, and persecution in mainland China.

It is important to take action to protect these bird species and their habitats to ensure their continued survival. This can include measures such as habitat restoration and protection, as well as public education and awareness-raising about the importance of conservation. By working together to protect these species, we can help to ensure that they thrive for generations to come.

Despite not being threatened on a global level, certain species of freshwater wetland specialists, including the Greater Painted-snipe, Grey-headed Lapwing, and Northern Lapwing, are deemed to be of local conservation concern in Hong Kong as they have a limited distribution in the region.

Conservation Measures

The Wild Animals Protection Ordinance (Cap. 170) safeguards all wild birds in Hong Kong. Anyone who intentionally disrupts, captures, eliminates, or harms wild birds, as well as their nests and eggs, is committing an offence. This act could result in a maximum fine of $100,000 and imprisonment for one year.

The Ramsar Convention designated the Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay area as a Wetland of International Importance on 4 September 1995, to protect the significant number of birds that winter there each year. The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) has developed a management plan to conserve the site, which includes an ecological monitoring program to gather information on the ecological features of the Ramsar site each year for conservation and management purposes.

Hong Kong is home to a diverse range of bird species, and to ensure the conservation of these birds, the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) has been working with local specialist groups to conduct various studies on the avifauna. The aim of these studies is to enhance our understanding of the local birds and to facilitate the implementation of effective conservation measures.

Some of the studies have focused on birds of conservation concern, such as White-bellied Sea Eagles, egrets, herons, and terns. By conducting these studies, AFCD has been able to gather valuable information on the behavior, habitat requirements, and breeding patterns of these species. This information is used to develop and implement appropriate conservation measures that can help to protect these species and their habitats.

One example of such conservation measures is the provision of suitable nest-boxes for species that breed in Hong Kong, including forest birds and terns. By providing these nest-boxes, AFCD is helping to increase the breeding success of these species and, in turn, contributing to their long-term survival.

The conservation efforts of AFCD have also led to the recognition of the Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay area as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention. This designation recognizes the importance of the site for the conservation of the large number of birds that winter there every year. To ensure the continued conservation of the site, AFCD is implementing a management plan that includes the Ramsar Site ecological monitoring program. This program collects baseline information on the ecological characteristics of the site annually for conservation and management purposes.

In conclusion, the studies conducted by AFCD and its collaboration with local specialist groups are crucial for the conservation of Hong Kong’s avifauna. By gaining a better understanding of these birds and their habitats, we can develop and implement effective conservation measures to protect these species and their ecosystems for future generations.

duller in

Key Sites for Bird Watching in Hong Kong

Hong Kong is a unique destination for birdwatching enthusiasts as its diverse physical environments and habitats support a wide variety of avifauna. There are several birdwatching hotspots located across the territory, offering fantastic opportunities to observe and appreciate different bird species in their natural habitats.

Mai Po Nature Reserve, situated in the northwest of Hong Kong, is undoubtedly the most popular and renowned birdwatching destination. It is also recognized as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention. The reserve spans over 380 hectares of mudflats, mangroves, and ponds, providing a crucial stopover and wintering habitat for migratory birds. More than 400 bird species have been recorded in Mai Po, including the globally endangered Black-faced Spoonbill and Nordmann’s Greenshank.

The Hong Kong Wetland Park, located in Tin Shui Wai, is another must-visit destination for bird lovers. The park covers an area of 61 hectares and is home to various wetland habitats, such as freshwater ponds, reed beds, and mangroves. Over 230 bird species have been recorded in the park, including the Eastern Marsh Harrier, Water Rail, and Purple Heron.

Long Valley, situated in the New Territories, is another popular birdwatching spot known for its extensive agricultural fields, fish ponds, and wetlands. Over 250 bird species have been recorded in Long Valley, including the globally endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting and Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

Apart from these three hotspots, other birdwatching locations include Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve, Lamma Island, and Po Toi Island. These sites provide opportunities to observe forest birds, seabirds, and migratory species, respectively.

In conclusion, Hong Kong’s diverse physical environments and habitats make it an exceptional birdwatching destination with a wide variety of avifauna. From the internationally recognized Mai Po Nature Reserve to the lesser-known Long Valley, there is no shortage of birdwatching hotspots in Hong Kong. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced birdwatcher, these sites offer fantastic opportunities to observe and appreciate different bird species in their natural habitats.

Site Bird Species
Mai Po This site supports some 50,000 – 60,000 waterfowls every winter. Over 300 bird species, including globally endangered species like the Black-faced Spoonbill and Nordmann’s Greenshank, are regularly recorded here.
Tsim Bei Tsui A major roosting and feeding ground for wintering waders and ducks in the Deep Bay area. Species regularly seen include Northern Pintail, Northern Shoveler, Eurasian Wigeon, Black-headed Gull, Grey Plover and Eurasian Curlew, etc.
Nam Chung
and Luk Keng
The tidal mudflats in Starling Inlet are an important feeding site for egrets and herons of the egretry on A Chau.

Mai Po

Luk Keng

Site Bird Species
Tai Po Kau The mature secondary woodlands support a large number of forest birds which are less likely to be seen in other areas of Hong Kong. Well-established forest residents include Great Barbet, Chestnut Bulbul, Yellow-cheeked Tit and Velvet-fronted Nuthatch. Uncommon migrants, such as Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher, Hainan Blue Flycatcher, Black Bulbul and Tristram’s Bunting are regularly seen in this area.
Tai Mo Shan Shrublands at high altitudes support a few rare upland species e.g. Upland Pipit, Brown-flanked Bush Warbler and Chinese Grassbird. It is also a good place to observe migratory species e.g. Grey-faced Buzzard, Brown Shrike, Blue Rock Thrush and Asian Brown Flycatcher.
Shing Mun Large areas of mature woodlands and plantations support a great variety of bird species. Common residents include Crested Goshawk, Rufous-capped Babbler and Grey-throated Minivet. In winter, different kinds of thrushes and warblers can also be found.
Lung Fu Shan Lung Fu Shan Country Park in the northwestern part of Hong Kong Island has dense woodlands that are suitable for winter visitors like Grey-backed Thrush, Japanese Thrush, Asian Stubtail Warbler and Yellow-browed Warbler. The old fort and lookout in the park is also an ideal place to observe raptors.

Asian Brown Flycatcher

Tai Po Kau

Agricultural land
Site Bird Species
Long Valley The wet agricultural land and freshwater ponds provide a freshwater wetland and open area for specialized birds e.g. Greater Painted-snipe, Von Schrenck’s Bittern, Common Kestrel, Dusky Thrush and Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler.
Kam Tin This site mainly attracts species preferring freshwater wetlands and open areas, such as Grey-headed Lapwing, Oriental Pratincole, Red-rumped Swallow and Eastern Yellow Wagtail.

Von Schrenck’s Bittern
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Bird watching can be a rewarding and exciting activity for nature lovers and enthusiasts. Here are some tips and codes to ensure a safe and enjoyable bird watching experience.

  1. Respect the environment and the birds: Birds are sensitive creatures, and their habitats are delicate ecosystems. It is essential to respect the environment and avoid disturbing the birds’ natural behavior. Do not litter, avoid using flash photography, and do not approach too closely or disturb nesting areas.

  2. Dress appropriately: Wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing in neutral colors that blend with the surroundings. Avoid bright colors that can attract unwanted attention or scare away the birds.

  3. Use binoculars: A pair of binoculars can enhance the bird watching experience and allow you to observe birds from a safe distance.

  4. Learn about the birds: Before you go bird watching, research the types of birds you may encounter. Knowing their behaviors and characteristics will help you identify them and appreciate their unique qualities.

  5. Be patient: Birds can be elusive and difficult to spot. It takes time and patience to find them, observe them, and appreciate their beauty.

  6. Join a bird watching group: Bird watching with a group can be a fun and educational experience. You can share your knowledge and learn from others.

  7. Follow the codes of bird watching: Bird watching codes help ensure the safety and well-being of the birds and their habitats. Follow the codes, such as the American Birding Association’s Code of Ethics, and encourage others to do the same.

Bird watching can be a fascinating and enriching experience that connects you with nature. By following these tips and codes, you can enjoy bird watching while respecting and protecting the environment and its inhabitants.

  • Wear subdued-coloured clothes. Avoid colourful garments such as red, yellow or orange.
  • Walk lightly in the countryside. When you find the birds or their nests, appreciate them from a distance and keep quiet to minimize any disturbance to them.
  • Never disturb the natural habitats or the nests of the birds. To avoid startling birds, keep a distance from nests.
  • Do not capture birds or pick up eggs. These are offences that may result in prosecution.
  • Minimize disturbance to other people (e.g. landowners, farmers, hikers) using the same area.
  • Never spotlight nocturnal birds.
  • There is no need to track birds hastily. Relax and enjoy the countryside with an easy mind. This is the best way to observe birds and their behaviour. Even spotting a few common species will make your day.
  • Beginners can start bird watching in urban areas. Get to know the birds that appear in your neighbourhood. Next, visit wetlands to see waterfowls. When you have mastered the basic skills, identifying forest birds will not be difficult.


The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the conservation status of plants, animals, fungi, and protists. It is managed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and is widely recognized as the most authoritative and comprehensive database on the conservation status of species.

The Red List uses a set of criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of a species. The criteria take into account factors such as population size, range, and decline, as well as other threats to the species, such as habitat loss, overexploitation, and climate change. Species can be classified into nine different categories, ranging from “least concern” to “extinct.”

The Red List is used by governments, non-governmental organizations, and scientists to guide conservation efforts and prioritize resources for the protection of species. It is also an important tool for raising public awareness about the importance of biodiversity and the need to conserve threatened species and their habitats.

Currently, the Red List includes over 120,000 species, with more than 35,000 of them threatened with extinction. This highlights the urgent need for conservation action to protect the world’s biodiversity.

Overall, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species plays a critical role in our understanding of the conservation status of species and provides a valuable tool for conservation efforts.

“The Avifauna of Hong Kong” is a comprehensive guidebook on the bird species that can be found in Hong Kong. The book was published in 2001 and authored by a group of expert ornithologists and birdwatchers, including G.J. Carey, M.L. Chalmers, D.A. Diskin, P.R. Kennerley, P.J. Leader, M.R. Leven, R.W. Lewthwaite, D.S. Melville, M. Turnbull, and L. Young.

The book contains information on over 450 bird species that have been recorded in Hong Kong, including their identification, distribution, habitat, migration, breeding behavior, and conservation status. It also includes detailed illustrations and photographs to aid in the identification of birds in the field.

The Avifauna of Hong Kong is an essential resource for birdwatchers, conservationists, and researchers interested in the birds of Hong Kong. The book provides valuable insights into the diversity of avian life in this region and highlights the importance of conserving these species and their habitats.

Since the publication of this book, the birdwatching community in Hong Kong has continued to grow, and there have been many new records of bird species. Nevertheless, “The Avifauna of Hong Kong” remains a valuable reference for those who are interested in the birds of this region.

Lock N.Y.’s book, “Appreciating Wild Birds,” is an informative and insightful guide to bird watching. The book is written for bird enthusiasts of all levels, from beginners to experienced birders. It covers a range of topics, including bird identification, habitat and behavior, migration patterns, and conservation efforts.

One of the book’s strengths is its emphasis on the importance of ethical bird watching. The author stresses the importance of respecting birds’ natural habitats and behaviors and avoiding disturbing them during observation. She also emphasizes the need to protect birds and their habitats through conservation efforts.

The book provides practical tips for bird watching, such as how to choose the right binoculars and field guides, and how to use them effectively. It also includes a useful glossary of birding terms and a checklist of Hong Kong’s bird species.

Another highlight of the book is its beautiful illustrations and photographs of various bird species. The colorful images capture the beauty and diversity of Hong Kong’s avifauna, making the book both informative and visually appealing.

Overall, “Appreciating Wild Birds” is an excellent resource for anyone interested in bird watching, particularly those living in or visiting Hong Kong. The book’s combination of practical advice, ethical considerations, and stunning visuals make it a must-read for bird enthusiasts.

“Venturing Wetlands” by Lock N.Y. and Cheung K.S. is a guidebook for anyone interested in exploring the wetlands of Hong Kong. The book provides a wealth of information about the flora and fauna of these important ecosystems, with a particular focus on the birds that can be found there.

The guidebook is organized by wetland site, making it easy for readers to plan their visits and learn about the specific species they might encounter. It covers popular sites such as Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay, as well as lesser-known locations like Nam Sang Wai and Yuen Long Marsh.

In addition to providing detailed descriptions of each site and the birds that can be found there, “Venturing Wetlands” also offers tips for bird watching and photography, as well as information on the importance of wetland conservation.

Overall, “Venturing Wetlands” is an excellent resource for anyone interested in exploring the natural beauty of Hong Kong’s wetlands and discovering the rich biodiversity of the region. Whether you are an experienced bird watcher or a curious beginner, this guidebook is sure to enhance your appreciation and understanding of these important ecosystems.

The book “Birds of Hong Kong and South China” was authored by Philips, K., Lam, C.Y., and Viney, C. and published in 2006 by the Government Printer of Hong Kong.

Lin Chao Ying (2004). “Fei Yu Shen Si” [Bird Watching in Hong Kong]. Friends of the Country Parks.

The Red List of China’s Vertebrates was authored by Jiang Z.G., J. Jianping, W. Yuezhao et al. and published in Biodiversity Science in 2016.

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