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|Golden Snub-nosed Monkey|
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an Old World monkey in the Colobinae subfamily. It is endemic to a small area in temperate, mountainous forests of central and south-western China. The Chinese name is Sichuan Golden Hair Monkey (����˿��). It is also widely referred to as the Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkey. Snow occurs frequently within its range and it can withstand colder average temperatures than any other non-human primates. Its diet varies markedly with the seasons, but it is primarily an herbivore with lichens being its main food source. It is diurnal and largely arboreal, spending some 97% of their time in the canopy. There are three subspecies. Population estimates range from 8,000 to 15,000 and it is threatened by habitat loss.
The adult and subadult Golden Snub-nosed Monkey is sexually dimorphic. Adult males (estimated at over 7 years of age) have large bodies covered with very long, goldenguard hairs on their backs and cape area. The crest is medium brown while the back,crown to nape, arms and outer thighs are deep brown.
Subadult males (estimated at 5-7 years of age) are more slender than adult males. The golden guard hairs are short and sparse, and their crests show microbanding.
Adult females (estimated at over 5 years of age) are about half the size of adult males. The golden guard hairs are also present on the back and cape area, but they are shorter in length than in the males. The brown crest shows microbanding. Their breasts and nipples are large.
Subadult females are about two-thirds the size of adult females. The body hair is brown, gradually turning golden but without the golden guard hairs. The crest shows microbanding. The breasts and nipples are not as large as in adult females.
Juveniles (at least 1 year of age) are quite small, being less than two-thirds the size of adult females. The body hair is light brown, turning reddish gold with time. The rest of their body hair is brown. Sexual discrimination is difficult because their external genital organs are underdeveloped. Infants (age 3 months to a year) are light brownish gray or light brown, appearing white in sunlight. Their sex cannot be identified at this age. Newborn babies ( under 3 months of age) are dark to light gray. They turn light brownish grey after about 2 months. 
the Golden Snub-nosed Monkey is found in groups ranging in size from 5-10 individuals to bands of about 600. The social organization of this species can be quite complex. Even within a band there can be smaller groups referred to as OMU, one-male units that are each led by an adult male. The male may stay solitary, often remaining away from the rest of the group members as they rest. Adult females tend to socialize more with one another than with other males or juveniles. Group members remain close to one another, interactions between different OMUs often result in confrontations.
Protecting the young is a group effort. Mothers often have helpers assisting them with the care of their young. When faced with danger from a predator such as the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), the young are placed at the center of the group while the stronger adult males go to the scene of the alarm. The rest of the day, the members of the group remain closer to one another with the young protected at the center.
The distribution range of the Golden Snub-nosed Monkey is limited to the mountains in four provinces in China: Sichuan, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Hubei.This monkey is found at elevations of 1,500-3,400 m. It lives at different elevations and increases or decreases the size of its home range with the change of seasons. The change in home range size and location is dependent upon the availability and distribution of food. The total area covered by its seasonal home ranges is surprisingly large for an arboreal species. One of the largest home ranges found covered 40 km2.
The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey lives in temperate areas. It is limited to broadleaf deciduous, broadleaf deciduous-conifer mixed, or conifer forests.
The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey eats (from greatest to least in amount) lichens, young leaves, fruits or seeds, buds, mature leaves, herbs, bark, andflowers. This diet varies from season to season, showing a correlation once again between food availability and home range. The amount of lichens consumed appears to decrease in the summer with the greater availability of fruit or seeds. The monkeys' preferred lichen species seem to be Connus controversa, Cerasus discadenia, Salix willichiana, and Malus halliana. Lichens are found in great profusion on dead trees.
The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey is endangered due to habitat loss. For instance, lichens are the main staple of the monkey's diet and dead trees have the greatest lichen coverage. Unfortunately, dead trees are harvested, thus reducing the quality of the habitat and availability of food. The monkey is a highly selective feeder, so damage to its habitat seriously impacts the species.
Females are sexually mature at about 5 years old. Males are sexually mature at about 5-7 years old. Mating may occur throughout the year but peaks in the month of October. This approximates gestation at 6-7 months in length. The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey gives birth from March to June.
Biologists presently identify three subspecies of this monkey, which can be distinguished primarily by the length of their tails, as well as by certain skeletal and dental features. The dense human settlement of much of eastern Sichuan and the Han River valley of southern Shaanxi creates geographical separation between the three subspecies.
INFO COME FROM: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Snub-nosed_Monkey#cite_note-Seasonal_home_range-4