Shangaan Tsonga

to showcase their traditions and
Exploring the Culture and Heritage of the Shangaan-Tsonga People.
Shangaan-Tsonga culture photos
Shangaan Tsonga

As I travel through South Africa, I have the privilege of encountering the Tsonga people – a vibrant and varied group comprising the Shangaan, Thonga, Tonga, and other smaller ethnic communities. It’s fascinating to learn that they make up approximately 1.5 million individuals in South Africa during the mid-1990s, while their population swells to 4.5 million across southern Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Historical Background

As I delve deeper into the history of the Tsonga people, I discover that the earliest Tsonga-speakers arrived in the former Transvaal region in the 18th century. These pioneers were primarily traders who traveled along the rivers, venturing further inland to exchange cloth and beads for prized commodities such as ivory, copper, and salt. It’s amazing to imagine their journey and the challenges they must have faced along the way.

While exploring the origins of the Tsonga people, I come across a fascinating story about the formation of the Shangaan tribe. During the Mfecane upheaval of the 19th century, King Shaka of the Zulu sent Soshangane (Manukosi) to conquer the Tsonga people in what is now southern Mozambique. Soshangane discovered a lush land inhabited by peaceful, scattered communities and was so enamored with it that he decided to stay and make it his home instead of returning to Shaka. And thus, the Shangaan tribe was born. It’s incredible to think about the decisions and circumstances that can shape the course of history.

As I continue to explore the history of the Shangaan people, I learn that they were a unique blend of Nguni and Tsonga speakers. Soshangane, who founded the tribe, conquered and subjugated various groups, including the Ronga, Ndzawu, Shona, and Chopi tribes, which contributed to the cultural and linguistic diversity of the Shangaan.

It’s fascinating to consider how the blending of different cultures and languages can create something entirely new and unique. As a traveling photographer, I’m fortunate to witness firsthand the beauty and complexity of different cultures across the globe. The Shangaan people and their history remind me of the importance of embracing diversity and celebrating the unique qualities that make each community special.

In my research about the Shangaan people, I discovered that Soshangane had a significant impact on the culture and traditions of the tribe. He mandated the adoption of Nguni customs and the learning of the Zulu language by the Tsonga people. Additionally, young Tsonga men were conscripted into the army as “mabulandlela,” tasked with opening the road for the military forces.

Furthermore, Soshangane introduced Shaka’s military system of dominion and imparted the Zulu methods of warfare to the Shangaan people. It’s remarkable to consider the influence that a single individual can have on an entire culture and how their decisions can shape the course of history. As a traveling photographer, I appreciate the opportunity to learn about and document the diverse customs and practices of different communities across the world.

As I delve deeper into the history of the Shangaan people, I learn about the military conquests of Soshangane, which had far-reaching implications. Soshangane’s army successfully overran several Portuguese settlements in Mozambique, including Delagoa Bay, Inhambane, and Sena. Over the next few years, he went on to establish the Nguni kingdom of Kwa Gaza, which he named after his grandfather, Gaza.

It’s incredible to consider the extent of Soshangane’s influence, which reached far beyond the boundaries of the Shangaan tribe. His military campaigns and conquests helped to shape the history of the region, and the kingdom of Kwa Gaza remains a testament to his vision and leadership. As a traveling photographer, I am in awe of the rich history and cultural heritage of the communities I encounter, and the story of Soshangane and the Shangaan people is no exception.

As I continue my research into the history of the Shangaan people, I discover that the Gaza Kingdom was a significant empire that encompassed vast territories. The kingdom covered large swathes of southeastern Zimbabwe and stretched from the Save River down to the southern part of Mozambique. It also included parts of current-day provinces, such as Sofala, Manica, Inhambane, Gaza, and Maputo, as well as neighboring areas of South Africa.

It’s remarkable to consider the sheer scale of the Gaza Kingdom and the influence that it exerted over the region. The kingdom served as a center for trade and commerce, and its culture and traditions were an amalgamation of the diverse communities that inhabited the area. As a traveling photographer, I am continually inspired by the rich history and cultural heritage of the communities I encounter, and the story of the Gaza Kingdom is no exception.

As I delve deeper into the history of the Shangaan people, I discover that Soshangane’s leadership and military prowess were not without challenge. Shaka, the Zulu King, dispatched an army led by Dingane and Mhlangana to deal with Soshangane and his forces. However, the army faced significant hardships, including hunger and malaria, and Soshangane was ultimately able to drive them off in late 1828.

The conflict between Soshangane and Shaka’s forces underscores the complex political and military landscape of the time. It’s remarkable to think about the challenges that these communities faced as they navigated shifting alliances and territorial boundaries. As a traveling photographer, I am continually fascinated by the stories and histories of the communities I encounter, and the tale of Soshangane and his battle against Dingane and Mhlangana is no exception.

Shangaan people have persevered and

As I continue my exploration of the history of the Shangaan people, I am struck by the movement and migration of various groups during a turbulent period in the early 19th century. From 1830 onwards, many Tsonga speakers moved southwards, seeking new territories and opportunities. In their travels, they defeated smaller groups living in northern Natal, establishing their presence in the region.

Other groups of Tsonga speakers moved westwards into the Transvaal, where they settled in an arc stretching from the Soutpansberg in the north to the Nelspruit and Barberton areas in the southeast. Remarkably, some isolated groups even reached as far westwards as Rustenburg.

The story of these migrations is a testament to the resilience and resourcefulness of the Shangaan people. Despite the challenges of the time, they were able to forge new paths and establish themselves in new lands. As a traveling photographer, I am continually inspired by the stories and histories of the communities I encounter, and the tale of the Tsonga speakers’ migration is no exception.

Following the passing of Soshangane in 1856, a power struggle ensued among his sons over who would succeed him as chief. Despite Soshangane having appointed Mzila as his successor, Mawewe believed that he should be the one to take the throne.

In pursuit of his ambition, Mawewe launched an attack against Mzila and his followers, forcing them to flee Mozambique and seek refuge in the Soutpansberg Mountains located in the Transvaal. This event marked a significant shift in the Shangaan’s history and the fragmentation of their once-unified kingdom. As a traveling photographer, I find such tales of political intrigue and the ensuing turmoil fascinating, as they offer insights into the struggles and complexities of human societies.

After being forced to flee Mozambique due to the power struggle with his brother, Mzila found refuge with João Albasini at Luonde. Albasini had been appointed by the Portuguese Vice-Consul to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) in 1858 and made use of many Tsonga men as headmen and defenders of his fortified home, which was situated at the base of the Piesangkop, near the present-day town of Makhado, previously known as Louis Trichardt.

As a travelling photographer, I can imagine the strategic location of Albasini’s fortified home and the role it played in providing shelter and security for the displaced Shangaan people. The interplay between various communities and the history of their settlements are always intriguing to capture through the lens of a camera.

With the assistance of João Albasini and traders at Lourenço Marques, Mzila emerged victorious, and in 1862 defeated Mawewe in their battle for chieftainship. Mawewe was forced to seek refuge in Swaziland, where he sought help from King Mswati I, but ultimately settled in northern Swaziland along the border with Gazaland. Mzila was succeeded by Ngungunyane, who was eventually defeated by the Portuguese in 1895, leading to the fall of the Gaza kingdom.

The Tsonga-Shangaan people have a rich history that is deeply tied to the land in South Africa. While many Tsonga families traditionally lived in small villages with their own fields and grazing areas, urbanization has led to significant changes in their way of life.

Despite the fact that there are more than a million Tsonga-Shangaan people in South Africa, only around 500,000 of them ever lived in the traditional villages. Many others have moved to urban centers like Johannesburg and Pretoria, where they have joined the ranks of township residents.

This migration has had a profound impact on Tsonga-Shangaan culture, as people have had to adapt to new ways of living and working. However, many Tsonga-Shangaan people continue to maintain their traditional way of life, even as they live in urban areas.

One of the key aspects of traditional Tsonga-Shangaan life is the importance of family and community. In the villages, families would live in close proximity to one another, and work together to farm and care for their animals. This created a strong sense of community and shared purpose.

While life in the townships is very different, many Tsonga-Shangaan people continue to maintain these strong family and community ties. They have created their own unique culture in the townships, one that is deeply tied to their history and traditions.

Overall, the Tsonga-Shangaan people have a long and rich history in South Africa. While urbanization has led to significant changes in their way of life, many continue to hold onto their traditions and maintain their strong sense of community.

Beginning in 1964, the government began relocating people into rural villages consisting of 200 to 400 families. The resettlement process brought significant changes to the people’s lives, some of which were positive, such as the construction of roads, schools, and access to water. However, some changes had negative impacts, such as the fragmentation of extended families, lack of privacy, challenges with livestock, distance from agricultural land, and other issues.

The Tsonga people have a long and complex history, including periods of conflict and displacement. In the mid-19th century, they turned to João Albasini, a Portuguese trader and administrator, for protection. Albasini was appointed by the Portuguese Vice-Consul to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) in 1858, and he employed many Tsonga men as headmen and defenders of his fortified home in the modern-day town of Makhado.

During the 1860s, the Tsonga were involved in battles between Paul Kruger’s commandos and the Venda chief Makhato. For their services, they were granted land near the town of Schoemansdal, which became known as the Knobneusen Location. The name referred to the Tsonga practice of tattooing the nose, which gave it a knob-like appearance.

However, the Tsonga’s resettlement on this land was not without its challenges. In 1964, the South African government began resettling people in rural villages of 200 to 400 families, which brought both positive and negative changes. The scattering of the enlarged family, lack of privacy, and distance from the fields were some of the negative effects of these resettlements.

Despite these challenges, the Tsonga people have persisted and maintained their cultural traditions. Today, they are known for their music and dance, as well as their unique cuisine, which includes dishes such as xigugu (a type of porridge), matapa (a spinach-like dish made with peanuts and coconut milk), and magwinya (a type of fried dough).

The Tsonga-Shangaan people have a rich history in South Africa, and their story is one of resilience and adaptation. After the Portuguese conquered the Shangaan people, they fled to the Lowveld and settled there. Over time, the descendants of both the Tsonga and Shangaan people lived together in the area, and they interacted extensively.

In the 1960s, the Tsonga-Shangaan homeland was established, named Gazankulu, and it was carved out of the northern Transvaal Province. Gazankulu was granted self-governing status in 1973, and the economy of the homeland was largely based on gold and a small manufacturing sector. However, despite the establishment of Gazankulu, many Tsonga-Shangaan people still lived outside of the homeland, in the townships around urban centres like Johannesburg and Pretoria.

Despite facing challenges such as displacement and resettlement, the Tsonga-Shangaan people have persevered and maintained their cultural traditions. They continue to practice their traditional music, dance, and dress, and their cultural heritage is celebrated and shared with others. The Tsonga-Shangaan people have contributed significantly to South African culture, and their story serves as a testament to the resilience of the human spirit.

Tsonga Culture

Traditionally, the Tsonga subsisted mainly on fishing, with crop cultivation and raising a few goats and chickens being secondary sources of food. The prevalence of tsetse flies in their coastal lowland habitat made cattle raising an uncommon practice. By the 18th Century, the majority of Tsonga people lived in small and independent chiefdoms. These chiefdoms had a unique social system in which inheritance by brothers, rather than sons, was the defining feature. This practice was common in many Central African societies but rare among other South African groups.

The social structures of Tsonga tribes are relatively complex when compared to typical western family structures. The nuclear family, which includes a woman with her own dwelling and cooking area, her spouse, and their offspring, is the smallest social unit that can be identified.

pop of color and texture

Tsonga men have the option of having multiple wives, which leads to the formation of extended families. An extended family is composed of a group of nuclear families all headed by the same man. When the sons of an extended family get married, a settlement is formed known as muti. Muti consists of a man, his wives, their unmarried children, and the families of their married sons.

The traditional homes of the Tsonga people are unique and recognizable due to their circular layout and thatched conical roofs. The circular living areas are enclosed by wooden walls, and inside the circle, various huts and cooking spots are built. This traditional style of home provides shelter from the elements and a sense of community, as multiple families live in close proximity.

In addition to their distinctive homes, Tsonga people also have a unique sense of style. Wide beaded necklaces and heavy metal bracelets are popular accessories, adding a pop of color and texture to their outfits. These accessories are often worn during cultural ceremonies, as well as in daily life.

The traditional homes and style of the Tsonga people reflect their deep connection to their cultural heritage. While modernization and globalization have brought changes to their way of life, many Tsonga people still hold onto these traditional practices and values. These unique customs are an important part of South Africa’s diverse cultural landscape, and serve as a reminder of the rich history and traditions of the Tsonga people.

The Tsonga community is comprised of various social units, including the previously mentioned family units, as well as lineages or nyimba. These lineages consist of individuals who are able to provide evidence that they are descendants of the same ancestors.

The Tsonga community has a complex social structure that is based on various social units. These social units include nuclear families, lineages or nyimba, clans or xivongo, and tribes. The Tsonga community is composed of people who can prove they descend from the same ancestors. This is what constitutes a lineage or nyimba. Lineages or nyimba can be grouped into clans or xivongo, which consist of people who are descended from the same ancestor. This structure helps to create a sense of belonging and identity among the Tsonga people.

In present times, the Tsonga community structure is based on tribal relationships. A tribe is a group of people who recognize the authority of one tribal chief or hosi. The tribal chief is responsible for ensuring that the community is governed according to their customs and traditions. The tribal chief also serves as a mediator and a leader within the community. The tribe is further defined by the tribal area, or tiko ra hosi, in which it is located.

Overall, the Tsonga community is built on a complex social structure that emphasizes lineage, clan, and tribal relationships. These social units help to create a strong sense of community and belonging among the Tsonga people, which is an important aspect of their cultural identity.

Tsonga Belief System

In the Shangaan-Tsonga culture, ancestors hold a significant place in people’s lives. Although there is a recognition of a Supreme Being in Bantu culture, the powers of ancestors are considered to be more relevant. The belief is that ancestors have a considerable impact on the lives of their descendants. These ancestors usually appear in dreams, but some also manifest themselves as spirits. It is believed that certain sacred places, where ancient chiefs have been buried, are homes to these spirits or ancestors. These burial grounds are considered to be very important to each clan.

The belief in ancestors is deeply rooted in the Shangaan-Tsonga culture, and they play an essential role in the daily lives of the people. It is common for people to offer sacrifices and perform rituals to appease their ancestors and seek their blessings. It is believed that by honouring and respecting the ancestors, they will protect and guide their descendants, bringing good fortune and prosperity.

The belief in ancestors is not unique to the Shangaan-Tsonga culture, as it is a common practice among many cultures around the world. However, the unique way in which the Shangaan-Tsonga people honour their ancestors is what sets them apart. The burial grounds, for example, are considered to be sacred places and are treated with the utmost respect. People who visit these burial grounds must follow specific protocols to show respect to the ancestors and their descendants.

In conclusion, the belief in ancestors is an integral part of the Shangaan-Tsonga culture. The ancestors are believed to hold considerable power and influence in the lives of their descendants, and it is common for people to seek their blessings and protection. The sacred burial grounds are a testament to the deep reverence and respect that the Shangaan-Tsonga people have for their ancestors.

In the Shangaan-Tsonga culture, the ancestors hold significant power and influence over the lives of their descendants. Although a Supreme Being is acknowledged, the ancestors are considered far more relevant. They are believed to manifest themselves as spirits or appear in dreams, and it is said that they live in certain sacred places where ancient chiefs have been buried. Each clan has several of these burial grounds.

The ancestors are propitiated by prayers and offerings, ranging from beer to animal sacrifices. The Sangoma, who is a traditional healer and spiritual medium, acts on behalf of the community to make offerings in times of trouble or in cases of illness, and on special occasions. It is important to keep the ancestors pleased as restless ancestors can cause trouble.

This belief in the power of ancestors and the importance of their propitiation is a fundamental aspect of Shangaan-Tsonga culture. It is a way of connecting with their past and honoring the legacy of their ancestors. The practice is deeply rooted in their traditions and continues to play a significant role in their daily lives.

To ensure family continuity, children are given names of their ancestors.

The Tsonga people believe in a significant connection between creation (ntumbuloko) and a supernatural force called Tilo. Tilo is a term used to describe a superior being that created humans and is also associated with the sky, which is considered the creature’s dwelling place.

The traditional beliefs of the Tsonga include the idea that humans have both a physical and spiritual body, each with unique attributes. The physical body, known as mmiri, is the tangible aspect of a person and is visible to others. In contrast, the spiritual body is unseen and is associated with the moya, a term used to describe the human spirit.

The moya is believed to enter the body at birth and remains with a person throughout their life. At death, it leaves the body and joins the ancestors. The Tsonga people hold a deep reverence for their ancestors, and it is believed that the moya serves as a conduit between the living and the dead.

In addition to the moya, the Tsonga believe that humans have a third aspect to their being, known as the ndzuti. This attribute is associated with a person’s shadow and is said to reflect their unique character and personality. Like the moya, the ndzuti is believed to leave the body at death and join the ancestors in the spirit world.

Overall, the Tsonga view the human being as a complex and multifaceted entity, comprised of both seen and unseen components. This belief system underscores the importance of spirituality and ancestral reverence within their culture.

The traditional Tsonga belief system includes the idea that each person has both a physical and spiritual body. The spiritual body is made up of two components, the moya and the ndzuti. The moya is considered to be the spirit and enters the body at birth, leaving at death to join the ancestors. The ndzuti, on the other hand, is associated with a person’s shadow and reflects their human characteristics. It also leaves the body at death and enters the spirit world.

One of the fundamental beliefs of the Tsonga is that the spirit is attached to the individual and carries with it the unique characteristics of that person. This means that the dead retain a strong connection to the living, and passing over into the spirit world is considered a significant stage in the life of a Tsonga.

This belief system not only supports the idea of life after death but also underscores the importance of maintaining a strong relationship with one’s ancestors. In Tsonga culture, it is believed that ancestors play an active role in the lives of their descendants, and that they can provide guidance, protection, and even assistance in daily activities. As a result, the living make offerings to the ancestors through the Sangoma to maintain a positive relationship and avoid any potential trouble caused by restless ancestors.

Overall, the Tsonga belief system is grounded in the idea of the interconnectedness between the living and the dead. It emphasizes the significance of spiritual beings, such as Tilo and the ancestors, in shaping the lives of individuals and communities.

by the Portuguese

To facilitate the transition of the deceased into the spirit world, a welcoming ceremony was conducted by family members. Additionally, the death of one family member resulted in all members residing in the homestead becoming impure, requiring them to undergo purification rituals.

The Tsonga people have a strong belief in the afterlife and their ancestral spirits. When a member of their family passes away, it is believed that their spirit lives on in the ancestral world. To help ease the passage of the deceased into the spirit world, a welcoming ceremony is performed by the family.

When a member of the family dies, it is not just the immediate family who is affected. The entire homestead becomes unclean, and all the family members must go through ritual cleansing ceremonies. These ceremonies take place at different times of the day over the next few months.

One of the most important aspects of Tsonga culture is their connection with their ancestors. During religious ceremonies, the family comes together to pay homage to their ancestral spirits. They offer food and drink to their ancestors as a way of thanking them for providing for the people.

These ceremonies are not only a way of honoring their ancestors, but also a way for the living to connect with the spirit world. The Tsonga believe that the dead retain strong links with the living, and by performing these ceremonies, they are able to maintain that connection.

In Shangaan-Tsonga culture, facial scarification was initially used to discourage Arab slave traders, but it has now become a symbol of attractiveness. The passage from adolescence to adulthood involves a significant, almost martial rite, during which designs are etched into the skin through burning.

The traditional Tsonga worldview regards society as an overall unity that includes both the living and the dead. Along with their belief in serving ancestral spirits, there is also a strong belief in magic that can be used for evil purposes. This type of magic, known as vuloyi, is practiced by individuals known as valoyi, who aim to cause harm to the community.

In Tsonga culture, magic is a powerful tool that can be used for good or evil purposes. Those who practice magic for good are known as sangomas or traditional healers. They are highly respected members of the community and are believed to have a deep connection to the ancestral spirits. Sangomas are often called upon to heal the sick or to offer guidance during difficult times.

However, not all who practice magic have good intentions. Valoyi use their knowledge of magic to cause harm to others, often for personal gain or revenge. In Tsonga culture, it is believed that the valoyi have a pact with evil spirits and are willing to do whatever it takes to achieve their goals.

To protect themselves from the harmful effects of vuloyi, the Tsonga people employ various protective measures. These include carrying protective amulets or charms, performing cleansing rituals, and seeking the help of sangomas to remove curses or spells.

Overall, the traditional Tsonga worldview regards society as a holistic unity that encompasses both the living and the dead. This worldview is deeply rooted in their beliefs about the power of ancestral spirits and the role of magic in their lives. While magic can be used for good, there is also a recognition that it can be used for evil purposes, and the community takes measures to protect themselves from those who practice vuloyi.

According to the traditional Tsonga worldview, the community is a unified entity consisting of both the living and the dead. The spirits are believed to have a significant impact on people’s lives, and the good spirits were responsible for bringing good things, including rain, while the evil spirits, controlled by sorcerers, caused harm to the community. When someone fell ill or experienced persistent bad luck, it was often seen as a sign of the presence of baloyi or evil spirits. However, if the condition was severe or the cycle of misfortune persisted, divination was used to find a cure.

The ancestral spirits were consulted by traditional healers (tin’anga) through divination tools such as bones (tinholo), shells, or other objects to identify the cause of bad luck and suggest solutions. Traditional healers also utilized their knowledge of medicinal plants (mirhi) and combined it with magic to benefit the community.

Shangaan Music and Dance

In Shangaan-Tsonga tradition, the role of the storyteller is carried out by the grandmother or elder woman of the family, who is highly regarded as the keeper of old stories. The elderly woman, referred to as Garingani or the narrator, starts her storytelling by introducing herself as “Garingani, n’wana wa Garingani!” which means “I am Narrator, daughter of Narrator!” The audience responds with cheers of “Garingani” and continues to chant her name after each line of the story.

The Shangaan-Tsonga people have a fondness for music and have created various musical instruments. One of these is the ‘fayi’, a small wooden flute that is short and stubby, producing a breathy and raspy, yet haunting sound. Often played by young herd boys, it is a significant part of their musical heritage. Another instrument is the ‘xitende’, which is a long and slim bow that has a taut leather thong or wire that runs across a gourd.

The Shangaan-Tsonga people were known to use various means to pass the time during long journeys. Additionally, they are renowned for their mine dances, which feature a variety of musical instruments such as the mbila and are accompanied by the beat of drums and horns. The muchongolo dance, performed by male dancers, celebrates the contributions of women to society, as well as war victories and ritual ceremonies.

Life of the Shangaan Today

as ivory

On February 23, 1999, a cultural village was established near Hazyview, Mpumalanga, as a tribute to the Shangaan culture. This attraction was created to promote tourism and to assist in job creation, foreign currency earnings, and economic development.

Presently, the Shangaan people reside in regions situated primarily between the Kruger National Park and the Drakensberg Mountains, located in South Africa’s Mpumalanga and Northern Provinces. On the other hand, their counterpart tribe, the Tsongas, occupy the majority of southern Mozambique.

Tsonga Culture

The Tsonga people have a rich history, culture, and heritage that has been passed down through generations. Their ancestors came in small groups from Mozambique in the 19th century and settled in South Africa. Today, they live mainly between the Kruger National Park and the Drakensberg Mountains in Mpumalanga and the Northern Provinces of South Africa, while their sister tribe, the Shangaan, live in most of southern Mozambique.

The Tsonga people have a strong belief in the importance of family and community, and their worldview includes both the living and the dead. Ancestral spirits play an important role in their culture, and they believe in serving and honoring them through various ceremonies and offerings. Traditional healers, known as tin’anga, use divination and medicinal plants to help cure ailments and remove bad luck caused by evil spirits.

Another important aspect of Tsonga culture is their use of storytelling, which is traditionally done by elder women in the family. Music also plays a significant role in their culture, with various instruments such as the fayi and xitende used for entertainment and spiritual purposes.

In recent years, the Tsonga people have established cultural villages to showcase their traditions and heritage to visitors from around the world. These villages aim to enhance tourism, create jobs, and contribute to economic development in their communities.

Learning about the history, culture, and heritage of the Tsonga people can provide valuable insight into their way of life and help promote understanding and appreciation for their traditions.

Marriage in Tsonga Society

Discover the intricacies of a Tsonga marriage, a union that goes beyond the couple and serves to strengthen bonds between families. In Tsonga society, marriage is a significant event that involves a specific process and a traditional ceremony. Delve into the customs and practices of a Tsonga marriage to gain a better understanding of this vital aspect of their culture.

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Discover the intricacies of a Tsonga marriage, a union that goes beyond the couple and serves to strengthen bonds between families. In Tsonga society, marriage is a significant event that involves a specific process and a traditional ceremony. Delve into the customs and practices of a Tsonga marriage to gain a better understanding of this vital aspect of their culture.

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